Regional Geography of [Germany]


  1. Physical Characteristics
  2. Human Characteristics
  3. Economic Characteristics
  4. References

Physical Characteristics

Relative location- Central Europe. Located in both Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, Germany is bordered by Denmark, Poland, Czaech Republic, Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxemburg, Belgium, and Netherlands. Bordered by bodies of water, Germany is bordered by the Baltic Sea, and the North Sea.

Landscape and Physical environment- Flat lowlands in the North are used for farming. In the South, in contrast is rather hilly with heavily forested mountains (

Weather and Climate- The climate in Germany (temperate and marine) is mostly mild (Nelson, Germany). The winds off of the sea keep the weather warm in winter, and cool in the summer. Rainfall is the most frequent during summer months as winds from the East and West meet and can cause storms during clear sunny days. The warmest area in Germany is the area bordering to France and west of the Schwarzwald hills.


Human Characteristics

Population, Density, Age/Sex- Germany has a population of 82.79 million. The population growth rate can fluctuate, but the rate is typically low or decreases which causes Germany economic issues. The median age in Germany is 46.

Though Germany is a prosperous nation, they face an abnormal challenge of their population decreasing. The declining population is a factor of consideration regarding immigration policies that Germans controversially face today. Similar to the problem Japan faces. The book “Imploding Populations in Japan and Germany: A Comparison” Florian Coulmas explains the significance of government population policies.  “For our purposes, family policies are defined as that part of government social policies which aim at raising the well-being of families, particularly families with children (McDonald 2004). 2 on the other hand, fertility policies are defined as that part of government population policies which aim at affecting fertility” (Imploding Populations in Japan and Germany). Germany’s demographic challenges force reform to government population policies and implications of immigration policies.

The Male to Female ratio is 96 males to 100 females.

Language and Religion- The largest religion in Germany is Christianity. Roughly 70% is some branch of Christianity with Lutheran and Catholics leading the two denominations. In the book “Islam’s and Muslims in Germany” Al-Hamarneh explains the increase. “The rise of Islam has since the 60’s: Until the early 1960s, however, the number of Muslims in Germany has been negligible. Since then, through the massive labour migration following the bilateral recruitment agreements with Turkey and Yugoslavia, their number has continuously increased and Islam & Muslims in Germany—introductory exploration 3 reaches today approximately 3.2 to 3.5 million” (Islam’s and Muslims in Germany).

Cultural/ethnic groups- Cultural and ethnic groups continue to grow in Germany: “By the end of 2017, Germany’s foreign population had reached a record high of 10.6 million, a 5.6% increase in last year” (Lonely Planet, Page 746). Ethnic groups in war torn countries such as Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq have risen sharply. The screen capture below shows a small-scale display of Germany’s ethnic groups.

(“Germany Today.” LONELY PLANET GERMANY, by Marc De Duca, 9th ed., LONELY PLANET GLOBAL LIMI, 2019, pp. 747–747. De Duca displays the rise of diverse ethnic 10% is of other descent.)

Economic Characteristics

Major economic activities- Germany has a social market economy. Services in Germany consists of 67.5% of Germany’s workforce (Wikipedia, economy of Germany). In their economy machinery and construction are other primary activities employed at 24% of Germany’s workforce.

Trade fairs are a big attraction to Germany. Nearly two thirds of the worlds leading trade fairs take place in Germany (Wikipedia, Economy of Germany).

Imports and Exports- Vehicles are known to be Germany’s main export. Germany also exports petroleum gas and refined petroleum (Alliance Experts). Germany imports machinery, data processing equipment, metals and electric equipment. The main countries that are exporting to Germany are China, France, Italy, The United States, and the Netherlands.

GNP and GNP per capita- Germany has a GNP per capita of 43,850. In comparison to other nations, France has a GNP of 38,720, meanwhile the United States has a 56,810 GNP per capita. Germany is internationally ranked at 18 for GNP per capita slightly above Canada (

A major drawback to Germany’s economy is the high


Al-Hamarneh, Ala, and J. Thielmann. Islam and Muslims in Germany. Brill, 2008. EBSCOhost,

Alliance Experts

Coulmas, Florian, and Ralph Lützeler. Imploding Populations in Japan and Germany : A Comparison. Brill, 2011. EBSCOhost,

Economy of Germany- Wikipedia:

“Germany Today.” LONELY PLANET GERMANY, by Marc De Duca, 9th ed., LONELY PLANET GLOBAL LIMI, 2019, pp. 747–747.

Nelson, Robin. Germany, Lerner Publishing Group, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central,

Worldometers (age of Germany) (

Submitted by Roger Linn, 4/18/2019